Tracy, M. K., & Berkelhamer, S. K. (2019). Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Outcomes of Prematurity. Pediatric annals, 48(4), e148-e153.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Despite advances in neonatal care resulting in improved survival and decreased morbidity, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Therapeutic options to protect the vulnerable developing lung are limited as are strategies to treat lung injury, resulting in ongoing concerns for long-term pulmonary morbidity after preterm birth. Lung protective strategies and optimal nutrition are recognized to improve pulmonary outcomes. However, characterization of late outcomes is challenged by rapid advances in neonatal care. As a result, current adult survivors reflect outdated medical practices. Although neonatal pulmonary disease tends to improve with growth, compromised respiratory health has been documented in young adult survivors of BPD. With improved survival of premature infants but limited progress in reducing rates of disease, BPD represents a growing burden on health care systems.
Comments from Catherine: This provides an excellent summary of pathophysiology, ventilation modes and outcomes for this fragile group of preterms who often have feeding and swallowing problems related to their Chronic Lung Disease and its sequealae.